Chronology of Burmese Operation Against Rohingyas

Arifa
By April 8, 2016 18:33

Chronology of Burmese Operation Against Rohingyas

1785:

Last Rakhine Kingdom annexed by Burmese King Bodawpaya.

1824-26:

First Anglo-Burmese war; Arakan (Rakhine) state is annexed to British India.

1942-3:

Pro-British Muslims and pro-Japanese Rakhine clash; massacres on both sides. Muslims flee

north and Rakhine people move south, contributing to segregation.

1948:

Burma gains independence from Britain, U Nu becomes first Prime Minister.

1959:

Burma’s first President, Sao Shwe Thaike, declares, ‘Muslims of Arakan certainly belong to the

indigenous races of Burma’.

1960:

Rohingya vote in elections

1962:

Ne Win leads military coup; leads to increasing discrimination of ethnic minorities.

1974:

Rakhine granted statehood.

1977-78:

Nationwide crackdown on ‘illegal immigration’; 200,000 Rohingya flee to Bangladesh. Most

return to Burma the following year.

1982:

Citizenship Law excludes Rohingya from country’s list of 135 national races and strips Rohingya of citizenship.

1989:

Burma renamed Myanmar; Arakan state renamed Rakhine state; new citizenship scrutiny cards

issued to Myanmar nationals, excluding most Rohingya.

1990:

Elections held, Rohingya and Kaman parties run; several Rohingya representatives elected.

1991-2:

Military operation Pyi Thaya in northern Rakhine state; 250,000 people flee to Bangladesh.

1992:

NaSaKa military/border security force established in northern Rakhine state, notorious for abuses.

1993-95:

Rohingya who fled during operation Pyi Thaya repatriated under UNHCR’s watch.

1993:

Border Region Immigration Control restricts marriages of Rohingya in Maungdaw township.

1994:

Myanmar stops issuing birth certificates to Rohingya children.

1997:

Head of Sittwe Immigration Office restricts Rohingya travelling outside their township.

2001:

Twenty-eight mosques and Islamic schools destroyed in and around Maungdaw township.

2005:

Maungdaw Township Peace and Development Council restricts Rohingya marriages and birth

rate.

2008:

Rohingyas granted temporary registration cards and permitted to vote in widely discredited

Myanmar Constitution referendum.

2008-9:

Government ‘spot-checks’ Rohingya homes and restricts movement.

2010:

Myanmar elections, Rohingya allowed to vote.

2012:

Violence erupts in Rakhine state between Buddhists and Muslims.

2014:

March: Rakhine nationalists attack international NGO offices in Sittwe; April: Rohingya excluded

from April nationwide census.

2015:

February: parliament grants temporary white card holders (mostly Rohingya) the right to

vote in planned constitutional amendment. Days later the President reverses the decision and

declares white cards invalid; May: boat crisis in Andaman Sea reported in the international

press; June: UNHCR estimates over 150,000 people have fled from the Myanmar/Bangladesh

border area since January 2012 leading to a regional destabilization.

Source: Queen Mary University research, International Crime Initiative and E.S.R.C

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Arifa
By April 8, 2016 18:33

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